Tobacco

   As early as the 16th century, the Imperial Library of the Habsburg government in Vienna held volumes written by Dutch pharmacists who accompanied Spanish and Portuguese voyages to South America. They were quick to note that local aboriginal peoples smoked, either ceremonially or therapeutically, an aromatic plant that reputedly had an analgesic effect upon headaches. First planted in Upper Austria in 1648 and in Lower Austria in 1649, its use spread throughout the 17th century. By 1723, the Habsburg government, eager to capitalize on the popularity of tobacco use, established a state-run factory in the Lower Austrian town of Hainburg to process snuff and cigars. The region would become the center of Austrian tobacco manufacture, which Emperor Joseph II made a state monopoly in 1784.
   Production and consumption of tobacco grew sharply throughout the entire Habsburg Empire in the 19th century. Cigarettes appeared in 1865; by 1907–1908 their consumption matched, then outdistanced, that of cigars.
   The Austrian Tobacco Monopoly (Österreichische Tabakregie or Austria Tabak) continued to be a profitable state enterprise for both the First and Second Republics. By 1995, the company had become a corporate conglomerate, with holdings and managerial responsibilities in areas far from tobacco production, such as sporting goods. In 2003, the Austrian State Holding Company relinquished its control over tobacco production by selling its 41 percent share in the company’s equity to a British firm for 769 million euros.
   See also Agriculture; Economy.

Historical dictionary of Austria. . 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tobacco — To*bac co, n. [Sp. tabaco, fr. the Indian tabaco the tube or pipe in which the Indians or Caribbees smoked this plant. Some derive the word from Tabaco, a province of Yucatan, where it was said to be first found by the Spaniards; others from the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • tobacco — (n.) 1580s, from Sp. tabaco, in part from an Arawakan (probably Taino) language of the Caribbean, said to mean a roll of tobacco leaves (according to Las Casas, 1552) or a kind of pipe for smoking tobacco (according to Oviedo, 1535). Scholars of… …   Etymology dictionary

  • tobacco — [tə bak′ō] n. pl. tobaccos [Sp tabaco < ?; perhaps an old Sp name transferred to the New World plant] 1. any of a genus (Nicotiana) of chiefly tropical American plants of the nightshade family, with hairy, sticky foliage and long tubed, white …   English World dictionary

  • tobacco — см. Приложение 1 (Nicotaia tabacum). (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • tobacco — tobacco. См. табаки. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • tobacco — has the plural form tobaccos …   Modern English usage

  • tobacco — ► NOUN (pl. tobaccos) ▪ a preparation of the dried and fermented nicotine rich leaves of an American plant, used for smoking or chewing. ORIGIN Spanish tabaco …   English terms dictionary

  • Tobacco — For the plant genus, see Nicotiana. For the American electronic musician, see Tobacco (musician). Not to be confused with Tabacco. Part of a series on …   Wikipedia

  • tobacco — tobaccoless, adj. /teuh bak oh/, n., pl. tobaccos, tobaccoes. 1. any of several plants belonging to the genus Nicotiana, of the nightshade family, esp. one of those species, as N. tabacum, whose leaves are prepared for smoking or chewing or as… …   Universalium

  • tobacco — n. 1) to grow, raise tobacco 2) to cure tobacco 3) to chew tobacco 4) strong tobacco 5) chewing tobacco 6) a plug of (chewing) tobacco * * * [tə bækəʊ] raise tobacco a plug of (chewing) tobacco chewing tobacco strong tobacco …   Combinatory dictionary

  • Tobacco —    Indigenous to the Americas, tobacco is a sacred and powerful plant in many indigenous cultures. Its intoxicating effects were well known and rarely used for recreational purposes. In some cultures, it was never smoked or ingested in sufficient …   Historical dictionary of shamanism

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